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teddydawg:

This is so true of so many of us.

californiapunk:

California Bears by Alex Ramirez

POSSESSED TO SKATE

So I had this idea of drawing bears doing punk rock things. I call it CALIFORNIA BEARS.

It’s stupid and absurd and so that’s where the humor lies, in it being stupid and absurd.

Plus I love Punk Rock and Bears so it’s fun to draw.

Enjoy

future-dreamworld:

Re-Entry

Chesley Bonestell

mindblowingscience:

Engineered Bacteria Excrete Propane Fuel

Propane, the gas that fuels your barbecue (and perhaps one day your car), may soon have a new, renewable source.
Researchers in Finland and England developed a genetic process that putsE. colibacteria to work producing the flammable compound. They altered the bacterium’s metabolism so that it it churns out propane gas.
Propane is itself considered an environmentally friendly fuel under the Clean Air Act, because it breaks down into carbon dioxide and water when it burns. However, until now the gas has been produced only as a byproduct of the refining and processing of other compounds such as natural gas and petroleum, both of which are fossil fuels with serious environmental downsides.
This is not the first push for renewable methods of producing hydrocarbon energy. In May,researchers with the US Navyflew a model airplane with kerosene derived from sunlight and seawater.
More information: Jones, P, R. et al. ‘An engineered pathway for the biosynthesis of renewable propane’. Nature Communications, September 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1038/NCOMMS5731

Journal reference courtesy of Physorg

mindblowingscience:

Engineered Bacteria Excrete Propane Fuel

Propane, the gas that fuels your barbecue (and perhaps one day your car), may soon have a new, renewable source.

Researchers in Finland and England developed a genetic process that putsE. colibacteria to work producing the flammable compound. They altered the bacterium’s metabolism so that it it churns out propane gas.

Propane is itself considered an environmentally friendly fuel under the Clean Air Act, because it breaks down into carbon dioxide and water when it burns. However, until now the gas has been produced only as a byproduct of the refining and processing of other compounds such as natural gas and petroleum, both of which are fossil fuels with serious environmental downsides.

This is not the first push for renewable methods of producing hydrocarbon energy. In May,researchers with the US Navyflew a model airplane with kerosene derived from sunlight and seawater.

More information: Jones, P, R. et al. ‘An engineered pathway for the biosynthesis of renewable propane’. Nature Communications, September 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1038/NCOMMS5731

Journal reference courtesy of Physorg

starstuffblog:

Bubble trouble

The image above shows a perfect bubble imploding in weightlessness. This bubble, and many like it, are produced by the researchers from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland. What makes this bubble so perfect is that it is produced in a weightless environment, which means it is not deformed by gravity. These research bubbles are the most spherical known to science at this time.

The study of bubbles and the way they explode will have ongoing benefits for space and industry. Air pressure ensures that liquids stay just that: liquids. Bubbles are produced when liquids change state into gases. For instance, on mountain tops — where we have considerably less air pressure — water is able to boil, changing state into a gas, at a lower temperature.

In the vacuum of space, there is nothing to slow down the production of bubbles, so in space when liquids experience sudden pressure drops, a process called ‘cavitation’ can occur where bubbles form in the hydraulic systems of machines.

During the very fast and violent collapse of cavitation bubbles, their energy is expelled in jets and shocks, which can cause wear and tear in industrial machines and rocket pumps.

These are just two areas where knowing more about the physics of bubbles would help design better machines. To understand bubbles better, it helps to have a perfect model of them for observation.

On Earth, gravity pushes and pulls liquids, turning round bubbles into ‘egg’ shapes. Parabolic flights allow researchers to escape gravity for around 20 seconds at a time in special aircraft performing rollercoaster-like parabolic manoeuvres.

The team from Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne shines lasers on pure water and captures the bubbles on camera as they form and implode in a matter of less than a millisecond.

There is positive potential in the bubbles too. Harnessing the energy that liquid bubbles give off as they implode could be a novel source of energy in the future.

One example that researchers are working on is producing very localised heat on demand by creating and imploding bubbles with ultrasound. This technique could activate heat-sensitive drugs in the future, turning them on in very specific parts of your body, to make sure they work where needed most.

The future is bubbling with potential.

Copyright ESA

starstuffblog:

Mixing in star-forming clouds explains why sibling stars look alike

The chemical uniformity of stars in the same cluster is the result of turbulent mixing in the clouds of gas where star formation occurs, according to a study by astrophysicists at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Their results, published August 31 in Nature, show that even stars that don’t stay together in a cluster will share a chemical fingerprint with their siblings which can be used to trace them to the same birthplace.

"We can see that stars that are part of the same star cluster today are chemically identical, but we had no good reason to think that this would also be true of stars that were born together and then dispersed immediately rather than forming a long-lived cluster," said Mark Krumholz, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz.

Our sun and its siblings, for example, probably went their own ways within a few million years after they were born, Krumholz said. The new study suggests that astronomers could potentially find the sun’s long-lost siblings even if they are now on the opposite side of the galaxy.

Krumholz and UC Santa Cruz graduate student Yi Feng used supercomputers to simulate two streams of interstellar gas coming together to form a cloud that, over the course of a few million years, collapses under its own gravity to make a cluster of stars. Studies of interstellar gas show much greater variation in chemical abundances than is seen among stars within the same open star cluster. To represent this variation, the researchers added “tracer dyes” to the two gas streams in the simulations. The results showed extreme turbulence as the two streams came together, and this turbulence effectively mixed together the tracer dyes.

"We put red dye in one stream and blue dye in the other, and by the time the cloud started to collapse and form stars, everything was purple. The resulting stars were purple as well," Krumholz said. "This explains why stars that are born together wind up having the same abundances: as the cloud that forms them is assembled, it gets thoroughly mixed. This was actually a bit of a surprise. I didn’t expect the turbulence to be as violent as it was, so I didn’t expect the mixing to be as rapid or efficient. I thought we’d get some blue stars and some red stars, instead of getting all purple stars."

The simulations also showed that the mixing happens very fast, before much of the gas has turned into stars. This is encouraging for the prospects of finding the sun’s siblings, because the distinguishing characteristic of stellar families that don’t stay together is that they probably disperse before much of their parent cloud has been converted to stars. If the mixing didn’t happen quickly enough, then the chemical uniformity of star clusters would be the exception rather than the rule. Instead, the simulations indicate that even clouds that don’t turn much of their gas into stars produce stars with nearly identical chemical signatures. 

"The idea of finding the siblings of the sun through chemical tagging is not new, but no one had any idea if it would work," Krumholz said. "The underlying problem was that we didn’t really know why stars in clusters are chemically homogeneous, and so we couldn’t make any sensible predictions about what would happen in the environment where the Sun formed, which must have been quite different from the environments that give rise to long-lived star clusters. This study puts the idea on much firmer footing and will hopefully spur greater efforts toward making use of this technique."

TOP IMAGE….This is an image from a computer simulation shows a collision of two streams of interstellar gas, leading to gravitational collapse of the gas and the formation of a star cluster at the center. In this image, the gas streams were labeled with blue and red “tracer dyes,” and the purple color indicates thorough mixing of the two gas streams during the collapse.  Credit: Y. Feng and M. Krumholz

LOWER IMAGE….This is an image from a computer simulation shows a collision of two streams of interstellar gas, leading to gravitational collapse of the gas and the formation of a star cluster at the center. Colors represent the density of interstellar gas (redder indicates greater density). Credit: Y. Feng and M. Krumholz
starstuffblog:

Mixing in star-forming clouds explains why sibling stars look alike

The chemical uniformity of stars in the same cluster is the result of turbulent mixing in the clouds of gas where star formation occurs, according to a study by astrophysicists at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Their results, published August 31 in Nature, show that even stars that don’t stay together in a cluster will share a chemical fingerprint with their siblings which can be used to trace them to the same birthplace.

"We can see that stars that are part of the same star cluster today are chemically identical, but we had no good reason to think that this would also be true of stars that were born together and then dispersed immediately rather than forming a long-lived cluster," said Mark Krumholz, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz.

Our sun and its siblings, for example, probably went their own ways within a few million years after they were born, Krumholz said. The new study suggests that astronomers could potentially find the sun’s long-lost siblings even if they are now on the opposite side of the galaxy.

Krumholz and UC Santa Cruz graduate student Yi Feng used supercomputers to simulate two streams of interstellar gas coming together to form a cloud that, over the course of a few million years, collapses under its own gravity to make a cluster of stars. Studies of interstellar gas show much greater variation in chemical abundances than is seen among stars within the same open star cluster. To represent this variation, the researchers added “tracer dyes” to the two gas streams in the simulations. The results showed extreme turbulence as the two streams came together, and this turbulence effectively mixed together the tracer dyes.

"We put red dye in one stream and blue dye in the other, and by the time the cloud started to collapse and form stars, everything was purple. The resulting stars were purple as well," Krumholz said. "This explains why stars that are born together wind up having the same abundances: as the cloud that forms them is assembled, it gets thoroughly mixed. This was actually a bit of a surprise. I didn’t expect the turbulence to be as violent as it was, so I didn’t expect the mixing to be as rapid or efficient. I thought we’d get some blue stars and some red stars, instead of getting all purple stars."

The simulations also showed that the mixing happens very fast, before much of the gas has turned into stars. This is encouraging for the prospects of finding the sun’s siblings, because the distinguishing characteristic of stellar families that don’t stay together is that they probably disperse before much of their parent cloud has been converted to stars. If the mixing didn’t happen quickly enough, then the chemical uniformity of star clusters would be the exception rather than the rule. Instead, the simulations indicate that even clouds that don’t turn much of their gas into stars produce stars with nearly identical chemical signatures. 

"The idea of finding the siblings of the sun through chemical tagging is not new, but no one had any idea if it would work," Krumholz said. "The underlying problem was that we didn’t really know why stars in clusters are chemically homogeneous, and so we couldn’t make any sensible predictions about what would happen in the environment where the Sun formed, which must have been quite different from the environments that give rise to long-lived star clusters. This study puts the idea on much firmer footing and will hopefully spur greater efforts toward making use of this technique."

TOP IMAGE….This is an image from a computer simulation shows a collision of two streams of interstellar gas, leading to gravitational collapse of the gas and the formation of a star cluster at the center. In this image, the gas streams were labeled with blue and red “tracer dyes,” and the purple color indicates thorough mixing of the two gas streams during the collapse.  Credit: Y. Feng and M. Krumholz

LOWER IMAGE….This is an image from a computer simulation shows a collision of two streams of interstellar gas, leading to gravitational collapse of the gas and the formation of a star cluster at the center. Colors represent the density of interstellar gas (redder indicates greater density). Credit: Y. Feng and M. Krumholz

starstuffblog:

Mixing in star-forming clouds explains why sibling stars look alike

The chemical uniformity of stars in the same cluster is the result of turbulent mixing in the clouds of gas where star formation occurs, according to a study by astrophysicists at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Their results, published August 31 in Nature, show that even stars that don’t stay together in a cluster will share a chemical fingerprint with their siblings which can be used to trace them to the same birthplace.

"We can see that stars that are part of the same star cluster today are chemically identical, but we had no good reason to think that this would also be true of stars that were born together and then dispersed immediately rather than forming a long-lived cluster," said Mark Krumholz, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz.

Our sun and its siblings, for example, probably went their own ways within a few million years after they were born, Krumholz said. The new study suggests that astronomers could potentially find the sun’s long-lost siblings even if they are now on the opposite side of the galaxy.

Krumholz and UC Santa Cruz graduate student Yi Feng used supercomputers to simulate two streams of interstellar gas coming together to form a cloud that, over the course of a few million years, collapses under its own gravity to make a cluster of stars. Studies of interstellar gas show much greater variation in chemical abundances than is seen among stars within the same open star cluster. To represent this variation, the researchers added “tracer dyes” to the two gas streams in the simulations. The results showed extreme turbulence as the two streams came together, and this turbulence effectively mixed together the tracer dyes.

"We put red dye in one stream and blue dye in the other, and by the time the cloud started to collapse and form stars, everything was purple. The resulting stars were purple as well," Krumholz said. "This explains why stars that are born together wind up having the same abundances: as the cloud that forms them is assembled, it gets thoroughly mixed. This was actually a bit of a surprise. I didn’t expect the turbulence to be as violent as it was, so I didn’t expect the mixing to be as rapid or efficient. I thought we’d get some blue stars and some red stars, instead of getting all purple stars."

The simulations also showed that the mixing happens very fast, before much of the gas has turned into stars. This is encouraging for the prospects of finding the sun’s siblings, because the distinguishing characteristic of stellar families that don’t stay together is that they probably disperse before much of their parent cloud has been converted to stars. If the mixing didn’t happen quickly enough, then the chemical uniformity of star clusters would be the exception rather than the rule. Instead, the simulations indicate that even clouds that don’t turn much of their gas into stars produce stars with nearly identical chemical signatures.

"The idea of finding the siblings of the sun through chemical tagging is not new, but no one had any idea if it would work," Krumholz said. "The underlying problem was that we didn’t really know why stars in clusters are chemically homogeneous, and so we couldn’t make any sensible predictions about what would happen in the environment where the Sun formed, which must have been quite different from the environments that give rise to long-lived star clusters. This study puts the idea on much firmer footing and will hopefully spur greater efforts toward making use of this technique."

TOP IMAGE….This is an image from a computer simulation shows a collision of two streams of interstellar gas, leading to gravitational collapse of the gas and the formation of a star cluster at the center. In this image, the gas streams were labeled with blue and red “tracer dyes,” and the purple color indicates thorough mixing of the two gas streams during the collapse. Credit: Y. Feng and M. Krumholz

LOWER IMAGE….This is an image from a computer simulation shows a collision of two streams of interstellar gas, leading to gravitational collapse of the gas and the formation of a star cluster at the center. Colors represent the density of interstellar gas (redder indicates greater density). Credit: Y. Feng and M. Krumholz

cross-connect:

Damien Clarke is a GIF maker from Melbourne, Australia who posts under the name 12gon. All of his graphics are generated entirely by writing code, inputting vertex coordinates, animating values using different algorithms and choosing colours by typing in hex values. This is all done in a 2D/3D graphics library he wrote for a different purpose in an Adobe AIR app.
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cross-connect:

Damien Clarke is a GIF maker from Melbourne, Australia who posts under the name 12gon. All of his graphics are generated entirely by writing code, inputting vertex coordinates, animating values using different algorithms and choosing colours by typing in hex values. This is all done in a 2D/3D graphics library he wrote for a different purpose in an Adobe AIR app.
#
cross-connect:

Damien Clarke is a GIF maker from Melbourne, Australia who posts under the name 12gon. All of his graphics are generated entirely by writing code, inputting vertex coordinates, animating values using different algorithms and choosing colours by typing in hex values. This is all done in a 2D/3D graphics library he wrote for a different purpose in an Adobe AIR app.
#
cross-connect:

Damien Clarke is a GIF maker from Melbourne, Australia who posts under the name 12gon. All of his graphics are generated entirely by writing code, inputting vertex coordinates, animating values using different algorithms and choosing colours by typing in hex values. This is all done in a 2D/3D graphics library he wrote for a different purpose in an Adobe AIR app.
#

cross-connect:

Damien Clarke is a GIF maker from Melbourne, Australia who posts under the name 12gon. All of his graphics are generated entirely by writing code, inputting vertex coordinates, animating values using different algorithms and choosing colours by typing in hex values. This is all done in a 2D/3D graphics library he wrote for a different purpose in an Adobe AIR app.

#

sagansense:

invaderxan:

Supernovae put out such a huge amount of light when they explode, that they can briefly outshine an entire galaxy.

Related: more on supernovae (explained by Brian Cox) here and here.

ohstarstuff:

Yer a Wizard, Nebula

Located only 8,000 light years away, the Wizard nebula, surrounds developing open star cluster NGC 7380. Visually, the interplay of stars, gas, and dust has created a shape that appears to some like a medieval sorcerer which spans about 100 light years. Astronomers expect that the nebula may only last a few million years, although some of the stars being formed may outlive our Sun.

(Image Credit: J-P Metsavainio)