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neurosciencestuff:

Common links between neurodegenerative diseases identified
Diseases of the central nervous system are a big burden to society. According to estimates, they cost €800 billion per year in Europe. And for most of them, there is no definitive cure. This is true, for example, for Parkinson disease. Although good treatments exist to manage its symptoms, they become more and more ineffective as the disease progresses. Now, the EU-funded REPLACES project, completed in 2013, which associated scientists with clinicians, has shed light on the abnormal working of a particular brain circuitry related to Parkinson’s disease. The results of the project suggest that these same circuits are implicated in different forms of pathologies. And this gives important insights into the possible common links between neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and intellective disabilities or autism.
Existing treatments for Parkinson are very effective at the beginning. When the disease progresses, however, drugs, such as levodopa and so-called dopamine agonists, produce side effects that are sometimes even worse than the initial symptoms of the condition. In particular, they cause a complication called dyskinesia, characterised by abnormal involuntary movements. Therapies are therefore sought that allow better management of symptoms.
The project focused on the study of a highly plastic brain circuitry, which connects regions of the cerebral cortex with the basal ganglia. It is involved in very important functions such as learning and memory. “This system, based onglutamate as a mean of signalling between neurons, has also been discovered to be damaged in Parkinson disease,” says Monica Di Luca, professor of neuropharmacology at the University of Milan, Italy, and the project coordinator. She adds: “Parkinson’s more well-known and characteristic trait is the selective loss of cells producers of neurotransmitter dopamine.”
Researchers involved into the project studied the function and plasticity of this circuit in different animal models of Parkinson disease, from mice to non-human primates. They found that exactly the same alterations were present and conserved. This makes it an interesting and alternative target for trying to re-establish the correct functioning and reverse the symptoms of the disease.
One expert agrees with the need to target alternative target systems. “What researchers are trying to do is to intervene to modulate other systems that do not involve dopamine and obtain a better symptoms management,” explains Erwan Bezard, a researcher at the Neurodenerative Diseases Institute at the University of Bordeaux, in France. He also works on alternative targets in Parkinson disease. In monkeys, compounds that target glutamate receptors, used in combination with traditional drugs, have previously shown to improve some deficits in voluntary motor control.
But the research has also shed some light into apparently unrelated diseases. It is becoming more and more obvious that the same alterations in the working of the communication systems among neurons are shared among different diseases. “This is why we speak about ‘synaptopathies’: there are common players among Parkinson disease, autism and other forms of intellectual disabilities and even schizophrenia. Several of the mutated genes are the same, and affect the signalling systems through common molecules,” says Claudia Bagni, who works on synaptic plasticity in the context of intellectual disabilities at the University of Leuven, in Belgium and University of Rome Tor Vergata, in Italy. “For example, the glutamatergic system is also affected in the X-fragile syndrome, the most common form of inherited intellectual disability.”
Progress is in sight thanks to a much better understanding of the working of the abnormal synapses in Parkinson disease, and experiments performed in monkeys showing encouraging results. Indeed, “the team studied human primates, the model system closest to humans, and therefore their findings are relevant to human health.” says Bagni. Project researchers hope the door is now opened for the first clinical trials in humans. “We have identified a potential new target for treatment, and tested a couple of molecules in animals,” says Di Luca, the “next step would be to find a partnership with pharmaceutical industries interested in pursuing this research.”

neurosciencestuff:

Common links between neurodegenerative diseases identified

Diseases of the central nervous system are a big burden to society. According to estimates, they cost €800 billion per year in Europe. And for most of them, there is no definitive cure. This is true, for example, for Parkinson disease. Although good treatments exist to manage its symptoms, they become more and more ineffective as the disease progresses. Now, the EU-funded REPLACES project, completed in 2013, which associated scientists with clinicians, has shed light on the abnormal working of a particular brain circuitry related to Parkinson’s disease. The results of the project suggest that these same circuits are implicated in different forms of pathologies. And this gives important insights into the possible common links between neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and intellective disabilities or autism.

Existing treatments for Parkinson are very effective at the beginning. When the disease progresses, however, drugs, such as levodopa and so-called dopamine agonists, produce side effects that are sometimes even worse than the initial symptoms of the condition. In particular, they cause a complication called dyskinesia, characterised by abnormal involuntary movements. Therapies are therefore sought that allow better management of symptoms.

The project focused on the study of a highly plastic brain circuitry, which connects regions of the cerebral cortex with the basal ganglia. It is involved in very important functions such as learning and memory. “This system, based onglutamate as a mean of signalling between neurons, has also been discovered to be damaged in Parkinson disease,” says Monica Di Luca, professor of neuropharmacology at the University of Milan, Italy, and the project coordinator. She adds: “Parkinson’s more well-known and characteristic trait is the selective loss of cells producers of neurotransmitter dopamine.”

Researchers involved into the project studied the function and plasticity of this circuit in different animal models of Parkinson disease, from mice to non-human primates. They found that exactly the same alterations were present and conserved. This makes it an interesting and alternative target for trying to re-establish the correct functioning and reverse the symptoms of the disease.

One expert agrees with the need to target alternative target systems. “What researchers are trying to do is to intervene to modulate other systems that do not involve dopamine and obtain a better symptoms management,” explains Erwan Bezard, a researcher at the Neurodenerative Diseases Institute at the University of Bordeaux, in France. He also works on alternative targets in Parkinson disease. In monkeys, compounds that target glutamate receptors, used in combination with traditional drugs, have previously shown to improve some deficits in voluntary motor control.

But the research has also shed some light into apparently unrelated diseases. It is becoming more and more obvious that the same alterations in the working of the communication systems among neurons are shared among different diseases. “This is why we speak about ‘synaptopathies’: there are common players among Parkinson disease, autism and other forms of intellectual disabilities and even schizophrenia. Several of the mutated genes are the same, and affect the signalling systems through common molecules,” says Claudia Bagni, who works on synaptic plasticity in the context of intellectual disabilities at the University of Leuven, in Belgium and University of Rome Tor Vergata, in Italy. “For example, the glutamatergic system is also affected in the X-fragile syndrome, the most common form of inherited intellectual disability.”

Progress is in sight thanks to a much better understanding of the working of the abnormal synapses in Parkinson disease, and experiments performed in monkeys showing encouraging results. Indeed, “the team studied human primates, the model system closest to humans, and therefore their findings are relevant to human health.” says Bagni. Project researchers hope the door is now opened for the first clinical trials in humans. “We have identified a potential new target for treatment, and tested a couple of molecules in animals,” says Di Luca, the “next step would be to find a partnership with pharmaceutical industries interested in pursuing this research.”

johnnybravo20:

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johnnybravo20:

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unicorn-meat-is-too-mainstream:


Sculptor Andy Yoder spent two years building this amazing world globe out of thousands of individually-painted matchsticks. One by one, Yoder attached the hand-painted matches with wood glue to a frame constructed out of a mix of foam and cardboard inside a plywood skeleton.
Bhakta’s Weblog:  facebook  |  twitter  |  pinterest  | subscribe
unicorn-meat-is-too-mainstream:


Sculptor Andy Yoder spent two years building this amazing world globe out of thousands of individually-painted matchsticks. One by one, Yoder attached the hand-painted matches with wood glue to a frame constructed out of a mix of foam and cardboard inside a plywood skeleton.
Bhakta’s Weblog:  facebook  |  twitter  |  pinterest  | subscribe
unicorn-meat-is-too-mainstream:


Sculptor Andy Yoder spent two years building this amazing world globe out of thousands of individually-painted matchsticks. One by one, Yoder attached the hand-painted matches with wood glue to a frame constructed out of a mix of foam and cardboard inside a plywood skeleton.
Bhakta’s Weblog:  facebook  |  twitter  |  pinterest  | subscribe
unicorn-meat-is-too-mainstream:


Sculptor Andy Yoder spent two years building this amazing world globe out of thousands of individually-painted matchsticks. One by one, Yoder attached the hand-painted matches with wood glue to a frame constructed out of a mix of foam and cardboard inside a plywood skeleton.
Bhakta’s Weblog:  facebook  |  twitter  |  pinterest  | subscribe
unicorn-meat-is-too-mainstream:


Sculptor Andy Yoder spent two years building this amazing world globe out of thousands of individually-painted matchsticks. One by one, Yoder attached the hand-painted matches with wood glue to a frame constructed out of a mix of foam and cardboard inside a plywood skeleton.
Bhakta’s Weblog:  facebook  |  twitter  |  pinterest  | subscribe
unicorn-meat-is-too-mainstream:


Sculptor Andy Yoder spent two years building this amazing world globe out of thousands of individually-painted matchsticks. One by one, Yoder attached the hand-painted matches with wood glue to a frame constructed out of a mix of foam and cardboard inside a plywood skeleton.
Bhakta’s Weblog:  facebook  |  twitter  |  pinterest  | subscribe

unicorn-meat-is-too-mainstream:

Sculptor Andy Yoder spent two years building this amazing world globe out of thousands of individually-painted matchsticks. One by one, Yoder attached the hand-painted matches with wood glue to a frame constructed out of a mix of foam and cardboard inside a plywood skeleton.

Bhakta’s Weblog:  facebook  |  twitter  |  pinterest  | subscribe


The Wild Adventures of Joe Iurato’s Tiny Wooden Figures

The Wild Adventures of Joe Iurato’s Tiny Wooden Figures

The Wild Adventures of Joe Iurato’s Tiny Wooden Figures

The Wild Adventures of Joe Iurato’s Tiny Wooden Figures

The Wild Adventures of Joe Iurato’s Tiny Wooden Figures

The Wild Adventures of Joe Iurato’s Tiny Wooden Figures

houghtonlib:

Tagliacozzi, Gaspare, 1545-1599. De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem, 1599.
Typ 525.97.820
Houghton Library, Harvard University
16th century surgeon Gaspare Tagliacozzi was particularly known for his skill in the method of reconstructing an amputated nose by grafting a flap of skin from the patient’s arm. The patient would have to spend three weeks with the arm immobilized in this position for the graft to take.
houghtonlib:

Tagliacozzi, Gaspare, 1545-1599. De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem, 1599.
Typ 525.97.820
Houghton Library, Harvard University
16th century surgeon Gaspare Tagliacozzi was particularly known for his skill in the method of reconstructing an amputated nose by grafting a flap of skin from the patient’s arm. The patient would have to spend three weeks with the arm immobilized in this position for the graft to take.

houghtonlib:

Tagliacozzi, Gaspare, 1545-1599. De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem, 1599.

Typ 525.97.820

Houghton Library, Harvard University

16th century surgeon Gaspare Tagliacozzi was particularly known for his skill in the method of reconstructing an amputated nose by grafting a flap of skin from the patient’s arm. The patient would have to spend three weeks with the arm immobilized in this position for the graft to take.

who is this mentalist with sausages written across her forehead that is right it is the most outrageous pop singer in town and her name is called lady gaga. i like lady gaga because she can scream most of the notes in a familiar order and she is really good at doing gymnastics and when i saw her on my television 4 days ago i couldnt actually believe my eyes because she had written sausages right across the middle of her forehead and before she went on to the stage everyone was saying to her lady gaga you cant go on television with sausages written across your forehead and she said oh yeah well we will see about that and she did a massive laugh that sounded like someone slapping a giant bar of toblerone off a wooden fence and then she screamed i am lady gaga i am outrageous i can do whatever the hell i want to do and then she got a red felt tip pen out of her sons pencil case and she wrote sausages on her forehead and everyone was saying oh god shes actually done it and then she went on to the stage and no one in the audience could believe what they was seeing and everyone was just putting their hands over their mouths and shaking their heads and saying oh my god oh my god does she have sausages written across her forehead and lady gaga just stood there on the stage smirking and pointing to her forehead for about a minute and then she screamed into the microphone am i outrageous or what and everyone just sat there in silence and then she took a 10 pound note out of her shoe and without saying a single word she put it inside of her mouth and she swallowed it whole and a man tried to tell her to stop because she was offending too many people but she said that if people was offended by that then they wont like what she has got planned next and without any warning she put a ice cube inside of her mouth and she let it completely melt and then she spat it out onto a cushion and before everyones gasps had even finished she was gone and no one has seen her since but there is rumours going about that she has been seen at the back of the old woolworths in town collecting old take a break magazines to make a pair of trousers and i think that if she doesnt calm down soon and stop being so outrageous then she might end up being found dead one day or even worse she might not be allowed to be a pop singer anymore and she will have to work in somewhere like morrisons and that would be really sad. Chris (Simpsons artist) xox

500 years ago today the man whos name is called jesus christ died when he was showing off to his friends by saying he could eat loads of bits of glass that he had found in a plastic bag at the back of the shop and he was saying to his friends that glass is so easy for him to eat because it is exactly like eating paste for him and he kept on saying i bet you a pound i can eat this massive bit of glass and his friends was all saying for him to not do it but he just kept on going yeah yeah yeah nothing can harm me i am jesus christ dont you know and then he started laughing his head off and sticking his tongue in and out of his mouth really quickly so that it looked like it was a little pink mouse having a look out of a wet hole and loads of spit was going down his chin as well and everyone was saying that it was really disgusting to look at because it lasted for ages and then all of a sudden jesus pointed to his friend noah and he said you owe me a pound mate and then he picked up the massive bit of glass from off a rock and he swallowed it whole and he died almost instantly because it cut all of the inside of his throat but luckily for jesus his pet rabbit the easter creature was walking past where him and his friends was all hanging out and he ran over to jesus and he picked him up and he held him in his arms like a little baby and he took him back to his nest and then when it was at the night time he laid a chocolate egg and he fed it to jesus by chewing it up and spitting it into his mouth and it brought him back to life and that is why people from all around the world eat chocolate eggs at easter time to keep jesus memory alive but i think that easter time shouldnt just be about chocolate eggs and meat because the true meaning of easter time should be about being kind to animals and always remembering that you should never eat glass no matter how confident you feel about it because like jesus you will probably die because not even jesus christ has magical throat. from your easter friend Chris (Simpsons artist) xox

She's Lost Control
Joy Division

superficial-mee:

Joy Division | She’s Lost Control

concupisco:

In Andre Ermolae series ‘Ethereal Pattern of the Real River’ you get a feeling for the inexpressible combinations of colors and lines, which form surreal and wonderful patterns. All the pictures are taken from the open window of a plane from the height of about 80-100 meters above Iceland.
concupisco:

In Andre Ermolae series ‘Ethereal Pattern of the Real River’ you get a feeling for the inexpressible combinations of colors and lines, which form surreal and wonderful patterns. All the pictures are taken from the open window of a plane from the height of about 80-100 meters above Iceland.

concupisco:

In Andre Ermolae series ‘Ethereal Pattern of the Real River’ you get a feeling for the inexpressible combinations of colors and lines, which form surreal and wonderful patterns. All the pictures are taken from the open window of a plane from the height of about 80-100 meters above Iceland.

timothydelaghetto:

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timothydelaghetto:

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